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ALASHEEV Jury Timofeevich (1923-59), the pilot - verifier, the lieutenant colonel, the Hero of Soviet Union (1960, posthumously). Tests of some airplanes of the KB of A.N.Tupolev, including the first Soviet reactive passenger aeroplane That - 104. Has perished at airplane test."ALASH-HORDE", the centre of consignment "Alash" and " Alashskoj autonomies ", December 1917 - March 1920. Center - Orenburg, the chapter - cadet A.Bukejhanov; had some branches. Orders alashordyntsev were part of a White Guard troops. It is liquidated Kirghiz (Kazakh) revkomom.ALBAZIN, Russian strength on the left-handed coast of Amur in 1651-89. E.P.Habarovym is based. About 1684 centre voevodstva. On Nerchinskomu to the agreement it is abolished.ALBAN (3 century), the first Christian martyr of Britain, is executed during persuit of christians at Diokletiane (ok. 305). Memory{remembrance} in the Orthodox church on August, 23 (on September, 5), in Roman catholic - on June, 22.ALBANIA (Shqip¸ria), Republic Albania (Republika e Shqip¸ris¸), the state in JUzh. To Europe, on Balkan p-ove, it is washed against by the Adriatic m. of 28,7 thousand êì2. The population 3,4 million person (1992), ok. 98 % - Albanians. A urban population - 35 % (1990). The official language - Albanian. Moslems - sunnity believing main{basic}, are roman catholics and orthodox. Administrative territorial division: 26 reti. Capital - Tirana. The chief of state - the president. The supreme body of the government - unicameral Public assembly. A central part of a shore - plain; the remaining terrain is occupied in mountains - the Sowing. The Albanian Alpes, hr. Tomori, Korabi (up to 2764 ì). A climate subtropical Mediterranean. Mean temperatures of January 8-9 °S, July 24-25 °S. A rainfall of 800-2000 mm annually. Large lakes (in Albania - in part) - SHkoder (Skadarskoe), Ohridskoe, Prespa; r. Drin. St. 38 % of terrain it is coated{obtected} with woods and bushes, ok. 1/4 - mountain meadows. The most ancient population - illirijtsy. In 2 century up to n. e. - 4 century n. e. In structure of Roman empire, then Byzantium, in 15 century it is seized by Ottoman empire. In 1443 extirpation against osmanli domination has headed Skanderbeg, basing in 1444 Lezhskuju league of the Albanian princes. In 1912, after a defeat of Turkey in 1-st Balkan war, it is professed by an independent state. In 1924 in Albania there was a bourgeois-democratic revolution which has been suppressed{quenched} at support of the foreign mandatory powers. Albano-italian contracts and agreements 1926, 1927, 1936 have consolidated political and an economic dependence of Albania from fascist Italy. In 1939 Albania is occupied by fascist Italy, in September 1943 - fascist Germany. In November 1944 country is free by National-liberation army of Albania; in January 1946 the national republic is professed. In December 1976 the National Socialist Republic Albania, since May 1991 - Republic Albania is professed. At extraordinary elections (1992) in parliament victory was gained by Democratic party (it is based in 1990). In February - March 1997 in Albania the civil commotions accompanied with omnipresent events of capture of weapons, failure{refusal} of subordination to authorities, the president, accused by rebels in the implication in a crime to financial manipulations have begun. President S.Berishe did not manage to take a situation under the supervisory control. In view of threat of full chaos and mass emigration in countries of Europe (first of all, to Italy), the European Community has made a decision about introduction to Albania of armed forces of countries - members of NATO. Albania - agrarian-industrial country. After 1949 have been incorporated by a fundamentals of a national industry. Ok. 45 % national the income form in an industry and 33 % in an agriculture. Production of chromites (over 1 million t annually), double-humped iron-nickel, copper ore, brown coal, petroleum, native bitumen. Manufacture of the electric power 4,1 billion in kw. A h (1990), primarily on a river plant on r. Drin. Petroleum industry, black and nonferrous machine industry, metal working, a machine industry, chemical, textile, a flavoring industry, the enterprises wood-working and a paper industry. The basis{fundamentals} of an agriculture - a plant growing (ok. 2/3 gross agricultural production). In structure of agricultural lands a ploughland over 83 % (48 % of her{it} are under grain). Cultivate wheat, corn, rice, sunflower, sugar-beet, tobacco, a cotton. A subtropical fruit growing, wine growing. Gornopastbishchnoe animal husbandry. Length (1988) railways of 684 kms, pitch motorways of 18,5 thousand in km (1991). Main seaports: Durres, Vlera. Export: a chromium ore, ferrochrome, farm products (tobacco, olives, citrous). The main{basic} foreign trade partners: Italy, Greece, Turkey, Germany. Monetary unit - lek.ALBANIA CAUCASIAN, the ancient state in Vost. Transcaucasia in 4-3 centuries up to n. e. - 10 century n. e. (in the lower flow of Araks and the Hen). Capitals - Kabalaka, Partav (Malt - residue). Integrated nations albanov, utiev, kaspiev, etc. In 3-4 centuries under an authority of Iran, in 8 century it is conquered by arabs, in 9 century has broken up to principalities. Since 10 century a large part of grounds of Albania Caucasian in structure of Shirvan, etc. the states.ALBANIAN SOCIALIST PARTY (ASP), is based in 1941 (up to 1948 KP Albania), since June 1991 calls ASP. The chairman of Presidium of Managing advice{council} - F.Nano (with 1991). The publication - the newspaper " Zeri and popullit ", theoretical - the log-book " Ruga e partis ".The ALBANIAN TONGUE, separate branch indoevropejskoj families of tongues. The official language of Albania. It is supposed, that the Albanian tongue prolongs one of extinct paleobalkanskih tongues. It is generically closest to illirijskomu, messapskomu and Thracian. Writing on the basis of the latin alphabet.The ALBANIAN TELEGRAPHIC AGENCY, state news agency of Albania. It is based in 1944, Tirana.ALBANIANS (the self-title - shkiptar), people, the main{basic} population of Albania (ok. 3250 thousand person, 1992). Number in Yugoslavia 1985 thousand person, Macedoniuses 500 thousand person. An aggregate number 6,1 million person. Tongue Albanian. Moslems - sunnity believing main{basic}, are christians (roman catholics and orthodox).ALBA-JULIJA (Alba-Iulia), city in Central Romania, an administrative centre zhudetsa Alba. 72 thousand inhabitants (1989). A machine industry, porcelain, boot, a food-processing industry; manufacture of refractories. The large centre dakijskogo rannerabovladelcheskogo the states; drevnerimskoe military strengthening. A cathedral (13-17 centuries), a citadel in style of Baroque (18 century).ALBENA, climatic health resort in Bulgaria on coast of Black m., northward from Varna.ALGA, city (with 1961) in Kazakhstan, the Aktyubinsk region, on r. Ilek. A depot. 17,5 thousand inhabitants (1991). Chemicals plant.ALGA Alexander Egorovich (1913-77), the national poet of Chuvashia (1970). Collections of verses and poems " On Rhodinum " (1952), "Fellow countrymen" (1956), " the Edge{Boundarouse} wash liked " (1971); the novel " the Sword and a sickle " (kn. 1-2, 1969-70).ALGEBRA (arab)., the part of mathematics developing in connection with a problem about the solution of algebraic equations. The solution of equations of 1-st and 2-nd degrees is known from an antiquity. In 16 century italian mathematicians retrieve solutions of equations of 3-rd and 4-th degrees. By K.Gaussom it is established{installed} (1799), that any algebraic equation n-® has degrees n roots (solutions), true or imaginary. In nach. 19 century. N.Abel and E.Galua have proved, that solutions of equations of a degree above to 4-th, generally speaking, it is impossible to express through quotient of an equation through algebraic actions. In the modern algebra the general theory of sets{combinations} in which the algebraic operations analogous on the properties to actions above figures are determined is studied. Such operations can be executed{designed}, napr., above polynomials, vectors, templates, etc.BOOLEAN ALGEBRA, system of algebraic methods of the solution of logic problems and set{combination} of such problems; in fine-bored sense - tabulared, template construction of logic of the expressions, defining logic operations above them.ALGEBRAIC GEOMETRY, the section of mathematics investigator algebraic curves (surfaces) and their multidimensional generalizations - algebraic diversification.ALGEBRAIC CURVE (SURFACE), the curve (surface) expressed in Cartesian axials an algebraic equation.ALGEBRAIC FUNCTION, function, the bound with explanatory variables an algebraic equation.ALGEBRAIC EXPRESSION, the expression constituted of characters and figures, coherent marks of algebraic actions: build, subtraction, multiplication, division, exponentiation, a taking the root.ALGEBRAIC EQUATION, the equation receiving at equating of two algebraic expressions. Napr., x2+xy+y2 =x+1. The algebraic an equation in one unknown can be transformed{reformed} to a kind{view} aî + a1x +... + anxn=0.ALGEBRAIC NUMBER, the figure, satisfying to an algebraic equation with the whole quotients.ALGETSKY RESERVATION, in Georgia, on the left-handed coast r. Algeti. It is based in 1965. The area 6000 ga. An Oriental spruce, a Nordmann fir, an oak, a maple, a feral{natural} pear, etc.; a roe deer, a wild boar, a stone marten, a brown bear, etc.ALGOL (from English algorithmic - algorithmic and language - tongue), the title of some the programming languages used at drawing up of programs for the solution of technological problems on a computer. It is developed in 1958-60 (Algol - 58, Algol - 60); it is advanced in 1964-68 (Algol - 68).ALGOL, b the Persea, zatmennaja a variable star which luster varies from 2,1 up to 3,4 stellar magnitudes with the season{term} 2 sut 20 h of 49 min.ALGONKINO-VAKASHSKIE TONGUES, macrofamily of American Indian tongues. Actuates algonkinskie tongues, ritvanskie (vijot and jurok in California), dead tongue beotuk (Newfoundland), selishskie, vakashskie tongues and some other.ALGONKINSKIE TONGUES, family of tongues algonkinov, included in algonkino-vakashskuju macrofamily of American Indian tongues.ALGONKINY, group of American Indian peoples (odzhibve, mikmaki, delavary, kri, montanje, naskapi, chejeny, etc.) in the USA and Canada. 260 thousand person (1992). Speak on algonkinskih tongues.ALGORITHM (algorithm) (from algorithmi, algorismus, originally - an armour. The transliteration of a name mathematics al-Horezmi), a way (program) of the solution computational, etc. the problems, precisely enacting, as well as in what sequence to receive outcome, uniquely determinated basic data. Algorithm - one of the main{basic} concepts of mathematics and cybernetics. In computer facilities for the description of algorithm programming languages are used.ALGORITHMIZATION, 1) a stage of the solution of the problem consisting in presence on a formulation of a problem of algorithm of its{her} solution. 2) the Section of computer science investigator methods, methods of construction of algorithms and their properties (sometimes also call algoritmikoj).The ALGORITHMICAL LANGUAGE which is formalized a language for unequivocal{unambiguous} record of algorithms. (Alphabet), syntactical regulations and semantic definitions will consist of the character set. Is the basis{fundamentals} of programming languages.ALDAN, city (up to 1939 settlements. Inconspicuous) in the Russian Federation, Yakutia, on the Amuro-Yakutiya automobile tract, in 290 kms northward from zh.-d. An item. Berkakit. 26,4 thousand inhabitants (1992.) Center of production of gold and micas. Metal working, manufacture of a building materials.ALDAN, the river in Yakutia, dextral in-leak{influx} of Lena. 2273 kms, the area of basin of 729 thousand êì2. Flows basically across Aldan mountains. Average discharge of water 5110 m3 / with. It is navigable on 1753 kms from a mouth. The main{basic} landing stages: Tommot, Ust-May, Handyga. It is affluent a fish (the sturgeon, a sterlet).ALDANOV (an ice-film. fam. Landau) Mark Aleksandrovich (1886-1957), the Russian writer. Has emigrated in 1919. In the historical tetralogy "Thinker" (1921-27; novels: " the Ninth termidora ", " CHertov the bridge ", "Plot", " Sacred Elena, a small island ") osmysljajutsja events of Russian and european history kon. 18 - nach. 19 centuries; in novels "Headstreams" (1950), "Key" (1928-29) - a previous history of revolution in Russia. The prose gravitates to tradition of the Russian classical literature, combines historical certainty with entertaining of a scene.ALDAN - SEMENOV (an ice-film. fam. Semenov) Andrey Ignatjevich (1908-85), the Russian writer. Has been repressed and 15 flying has conducted in camps. The most known story " the Bas-relief on a rock " (1964) - one of the first products{creations} published in the USSR about Stalin camps. Historical novels about a civil war. Books: " the White island " (1931), " the Law of friendship " (1954), " the Bay of desire " (1958), " Red and white " (t. 1-2,1970-74), " the Thunder-storm above Russia " (1980), etc.ALDANSKY AREA SLJUDONOSNYJ, in Yakutia. It is open{discovered} in 1934. Metasomatic deposits (Timptonskaja, Emeldzhakskaja, Elkonskaja, etc. groups of deposits). Amber mica occurs{lies} predominary nests, and also lentiform bodies and cable cores. Reserves 0,35 million t with the mean content of amber mica (raw) of 51 kg / m3. Center of production-. Tommot.ALDANSKY the BOARD, a projection dokembrijskogo the base in a southeast of the Siberian ramp, basically conterminous to Aldan mountains. It is combined metamorphic by breeds of an Archean and the lower Proterozoic.ALDAN MOUNTAINS, in Yakutia. An altitude up to 2306 m. Mountain hrebty: Sunnagyn, Zap. Youngs, etc. On downslopes the larch taiga, is higher than 1300 m stony tundra. Deposits of iron oxide, coal, mica, gold.ALEANDER (Aleander) the Jerome (1480-1542), the italian scientist and a cardinal bird (1538), the librarian in Vatican at a dad Lion X; in the capacity of the papal nuncio in Germany struggled with Reformatsiej. Has emited the Greco-Latin dictionary and grammar of the Grecian tongue.ALEATORIKA (from an armour. alea - a playing bone, a contingency), a method of the musical composition of 20 century, using elements of chance as a formative factor.HALBERD (frants. hallebarde), a cold steel - the lengthy spear with nasazhennym a battle axe. Was in the inventory an infantry of some european countries in 14-16 centuries, as ceremonial weapons - till 18 century. See also Berdysh.ALABASTER (from grech. alabastros), 1) a mineral, a version of gypsum. 2) One of titles of a gypsum plaster.ALEVIZ FRJAZIN (Aleviz Milanets) (Aloisio da Milano), the italian architect kon. 15 - nach. 16 centuries. With 1494 worked in Moscow, participat in construction of walls of the Kremlin lengthways r. Neglinnaja (1495).ALEVIZ FRJAZIN, Aleviz (Aloisio) the New, italian architect kon. 15 - nach. 16 centuries. In 1503-04 plotted in Bakhchisarai a palace of khan Mengli-Gireja. With 1504 in Moscow (the Archangelical cathedral in the Kremlin, 1505-08).SILT (from grech. aleuron - a meal), a friable sedimental rock, on structure intermediate between sandy and argillaceous rocks, the dimension of a ground mass of grains of 0,01-0,1 mm; hardpan silt calls as siltstone.ALEVTINA (Valentine) Kesarijskaja (Palestinian) (mind{wit}. 308), the Christian martyress damaged in persecution of emperor of the Maximin, the sister of martyress Hionii. Memory{remembrance} in the Orthodox church on July, 16 (29).ALEGRIJA (Alegria) Siro (1909-67), the Peruvian writer. Realistic novels " Golden the snake " (1935), " Hungry dogs " (1939), " In the major and alien world " (1941) about social tragedy of Indians of Peru.ALESIA (Alesia), ancient gallic city - strength; osada and taking of Alesia by Juliem Caesar in 52 up to n. e. Have finished seizure of Gallia by Rome. Gorodishche for Dijon (France): residues of strengthening, siege Roman structures, finds of weapons, etc.Is MORE SCARLET, the river on Altai, the left-handed in-leak{influx} of Ob. 858 kms, the area of basin of 21,1 thousand êì2. Average discharge of water 34 m3 / with. It is used for an irrigation.
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